Components of the California Newborn Screen:
Arizona (from Arizona Dept of Health Services http://www.azdhs.gov/phs/owch/newbrnscrn.htm)
- Hypothyroidism – Not enough thyroid hormone can lead to mental
retardation and growth delay. Hypothyroidism is treated with thyroid
hormone. It occurs in one of every 4,000 babies.
- Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) – This is a condition
in which the adrenal glands may not make enough hormones called cortisol and
aldosterone. The lack of these hormones can lead to the body not being able to
handle stress and sometimes losing large amounts of salt in the urine. CAH
can also result in the body making too much androgen, a male sex hormone. CAH
is treated with medicine. It occurs in one of every 15,000 babies.
- Phenylketonuria (PKU) – A part of food protein cannot be broken
down by the body. A special diet prevents mental retardation. It occurs in
one of every 15,000 babies.
- Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) – A part of food protein
cannot be broken down by the body. A special diet can prevent mental
retardation and other serious problems. It occurs in one of every 200,000
- Homocystinuria – the body cannot break down a part of food
protein. Vitamin B6 and a special diet may prevent mental retardation and eye
problems. It occurs in one of every 100,000 babies.
- Galactosemia – A sugar found in milk products cannot be broken down
by the body. A special diet low in milk products prevents serious problems.
It occurs in one of every 60,000 babies.
- Biotinidase Deficiency – The vitamin, biotin, cannot be
properly recycled in the body. Giving this vitamin can prevent seizures and
mental retardation. It occurs in one of every 60,000 babies.
- Sickle Cell Anemia – Red blood cells become sickle shaped because
of a defect in the cells that carry oxygen in the blood. The sickle shaped
cells can clog blood vessels and cause severe pain. Certain infections occur
more easily and must be controlled with antibiotics. It occurs in one of
every 375 African American babies, but also occurs in other races.