Ankylosing spondylitis (& Atlanto-axial subluxation)

Confirmation of the diagnosis of AS by laboratory studies is difficult because many results are variable and nonspecific.

The primary goal is to exclude other conditions that can mimic arthritis, such as sepsis, malignancy, and trauma.

Cabral DA, Malleson PN, Petty RE. Spondyloarthropathies of childhood.
Pediatr Clin North Am. 1995;42:1051-1070
Schaller JG. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Pediatr Rev. 1997;18:337-349